Urban Anthropology Simposyum

5th Edition – 13th, 14th of June 2019, Bucharest

After leaving the communist regime, Romania, like other countries in the socialist camp, started on the path of re-occidentalization, the recovery of the multiple gaps separating it from Western Europe. The reconciliation to the model of the market economy and the political liberal democracy, to which European integration has been added, has transformed the anthropological level on which new behavioral codes, new cultural forms depend, and created a new identity of the city. Transport or urban mobility is one of the major themes that emerged in the Romanian public discourse after 1989 and which remains, 30 years after, one of the priorities of the so-called “country project”. Transport has been assimilated both to economic development (labor, capital and goods), as well as to leisure and leisure tourism, in short, to the reshaping of the urban universe to the new economic and socio-economic points of view and to the membership of a global moving map.

As decades after 1989 meant the return of politics to Romanian society, political decision-makers expect strategies to generate economic development and prosperity. The increase in the share of urban urban transport compared to the previous public decade, inversely proportional to the state of the communications channels, has made trafficking a major theme in the articulation of political programs and options. Thus, a first conviction of public perception of transport is the dependence of urban mobility on political interests. Reducing politicization thus becomes a way to counteract illegitimate interests and to rely on the benefits that development strategies would bring.

A second major change in public perception of urban mobility is the re-evaluation of the socio-economic status of the individual. Increasing the number of personal transport means, cars, and increasing their quality is seen as a sign of increasing levels of living. Considered by many hegemonic means of transport, the car leads to a review of the place of alternative personal transport means such as motorcycle, scooter, moped, bicycle, trotter, rollers etc. as well as the place of public transport.

The urban anthropology symposium organized by the Bucharest Museum of Urban Mobility aims to observe, analyze and draw conclusions about the changes that take place on citizens, which influence their values ​​according to the time, comfort, pace of a day spent in a means of movement. As the big problem of the daily in a big city is agglomeration with everything it implies, mobility, in keeping with the daily personal agenda, becomes essential. In particular, the symposium intends to formulate conclusions for an embedded urban transport where both traditional and alternative means of transport, or with an important weight in the near future, are complementary and operate more effectively than before.

Symposium “Urban, Inc. Mobility and Anthropological Transformations ” is organized by the Museum of Bucharest at Casa Filipescu-Cesianu on 13-14 June 2019.

All those who wish to participate are invited to submit the title of the contribution, a summary of it, a short presentation of the author and the institution which it represents. The scientific board of the symposium will make the final selection of the proposals. The deadline for submission is 15 May 2019, at the e-mail address: relatii.publice@muzeulbucurestiului.ro with the mention “for symposium”.

Urban Anthropology Simposyum

4th Edition – 14th, 15th of June 2018, Bucharest

Schedule :

Thursday 14th of June 2018, Casa Filipescu-Cesianu (Calea Victoriei nr. 151, București)

  • 16.00: Registration
  • 17.00: “Urban anthropology as methodological avant-garde”, Nicolae Panea, PhD, University of Craiova
  • 17:30: “Urbanisation and historic destiny: Romanian cities and medical institutions”, Dr. Octavian Buda, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest

 

Friday 15th of June 2018, Muzeul „Dr. Nicolae Minovici” (Str. Dr. Nicolae Minovici nr. 1, București)

  • 10.00: Welcome coffee
  • 11.00: “The internet and the dynamic of tribalisation in the cities of today”, Ionuț Purica, PhD, The Romanian Academy, The Institute for Economic Forecasting, Bucharest
  • 11.30:  “Aspects concerning the second hand phenomenon in post-communist Romania”, Sultana Avram, PhD, the Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Humanities
  • 12.00: Bucharest in cartographic sources: the old maps displayed at the Museum of Ages”, Tudor Mihăescu, Museologist, The Bucharest Municipality Museum
  • 12.30:  “The Bucharest that is gone – The Bucharest that was. The Jewish Quarter Center, a case study”, Sorin Cleșiu, Museologist, The Bucharest Municipality Museum
  • 13.00: Pauză
  • 14.00: “Urban Cemeteries – The Parade Place of the City”, Silvia-Valentina Zamfir, Museologist, The Bucharest Municipality Museum
  • 14.30:  “From Saint Joseph Cathedral to Cathedral Plaza: the boundary between sacred and secular spaces in the urban environment”, Adrian Pogar, University of Bucharest, PhD candidate
  • 15.00:  “The Development of Aromanian Urban Life in the Ottoman Western Balkans. Case study: Moscopolis”, Vladimir Crețulescu, PhD, Museologist, The Bucharest Municipality Museum
  • 15.30:  Imagini ale orașelor renașterii naționale bulgare: Schimbări ale prezentării de sine, Iskren Velikov, Curator, Muzeul Regional de Istorie din Ruse, Bulgaria  
  • 16.00: Closing of the Urban Anthropology Symposium

Urban Anthropology Simposyum

3nd Edition – 25th, 26th of August 2017, Bucharest

 

Topic: Urban Forecast: Maps in continuous movement

The Museum of Bucharest, the Francisc I. Rainer Anthropology Institute and the Academic Society of Anthropology invite you to the 3rd edition of the Urban Anthropology Symposium, held between 25 and 26 August 2017 in Bucharest.Through this annual symposium, carried out in collaboration with other institutions, the Bucharest Museum intends to provide specialists with a platform for presenting the latest research in the field, to facilitate the communication of anthropologists at national and international level and to discuss topical topics related to urban anthropology , social and medical. Various topics related to institutional evolution, cultural changes and changes in citizens’ perceptions at the level of nations, pressure on the population, and the impact of economic growth on human development will be discussed.

Schedule :

Friday, August 25, 2017, Grand Hotel Continental, Calea Victoriei nr. 56

  • 9.30: Registration of participants10.00: Opening of the Symposium, Prof. Dr. Octavian Buda, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”
  • 10.30: “The elderly asylum in Romania today, or the path from abandonment to resignation”, Dr. Sultana Avram, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu
  • 11.00: Break
  • 11.30: “How Healthy is Drinking Water in the Towns?”, Dr. Emilia Tomescu, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu
  • 12.00: “Ecological model for assessment of violence in pupils – pressure factors impacting the behavioral sphere”, Dr. Petru Sandu, National Institute of Public Health – Cluj Regional Public Health Center, Cluj – Napoca; Co-authors: Dr. Ileana Maria Mirestean, Dr. Sorina Irimie, Psih. Ioana Beldean Galea, Dr. Anda Ioana Curta, Dr. Cosmina Samoila
  • 12.30: “George Orwell: On the Priority and Dated Forecast of the Last”, Dr. Viorella Manolache, Dr. Andrei Kozma, Academic Society of Anthropology
  • 13.00: Break
  • 14.00: “Urban space and school space. About the Spatial Distribution of Schools in Bucharest “, Dr. Carol Capita, Faculty of History, University of Bucharest
  • 14.30: “Structural Violence in the Context of Contemporary Resource Allocation Mechanisms”, Drd. Alexandru Vasiliu, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bucharest
  • 15.00: “Collective behavior in a city modeled as a reactor of agents”, Dr. Ionuţ Purica, Romanian Academy, Institute of Economic Forecasting, Bucharest
  • 15.30: Urbanization and Medicine: the hypotheses of modernization, Prof. Dr. Octavian Buda, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”
  • 16:00: Conclusions

Saturday, August 26, 2017, Casa Filipescu-Cesianu, Calea Victoriei nr. 151

10.00-12.00:

  • Visit at the “Museum of the Ages”, the first exhibition project of a museum with an urban anthropology profile in Romania, followed by a debate on the exhibition concept
  •  “Reconstitution of the Physiognomy after a Historical Skull: Mihai Viteazul”, Radu Panait;
  •  Presentation of the exhibition “Goddesses and shamans in ancient beliefs. Anthropo-zoomorphic plastic – from art to identity “, Theodor Ignat, curator.

The event is conducted under the close coordination of a Scientific Council made up of: Prof. Dr. Alexandru Ispas, Director, Francisc I. Rainer Institute of Anthropology, Dr. Cristiana Glavce, scientific researcher gr. 1, Institute of Anthropology “Francisc I. Rainer”, Prof. Dr. Octavian Buda, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Dr. Andrei Kozma, President, Academic Society of Anthropology and Dr. Mihai Constantinescu, Head of Social Anthropology Section and Urbană, Museum of Bucharest.

Organizing Committee of the Bucharest City Museum: Dr. Adrian Majuru, Director, Dr. Dan Pirvulescu, Deputy Director, Dr. Lelioara Zamani, Head of Bucharest History Office, Dr. Theodor Ignat, Archeology Section Coordinator, Angelica Iacob, Chief of Public Relations, Marketing, Cultural Projects and Horia-Ioan Iova, Museographer.

Urban Anthropology Simposyum

2nd Edition – 8th of July 2016, Bucharest

Topic: Cultural outskirts and Global spaces

The Bucharest Municipality Museum, “Friedrich Schiller” Universität Jena, Germany, The „Francisc I. Rainer” Anthropology Institute of the Romanian Academy, Le Centre d’histoire orale et récits numérisés of Montréal and L’Institut National de la recherche scientifique, Centre – Urbanisation Culture Société, Québec, Canada, The Association for Urban Anthropology and the Academic Anthropology Society of Romania invite you to attend to the second edition of the Urban Anthropology Symposium, which will take place in Bucharest.

By means of this annual symposium, organized in partnership with several other institutions, The Bucharest Municipality Museum aims to offer specialists in the field of anthropology a platform for the presentation of the latest research, to facilitate communication between anthropologists on a national and international level and to incite debates over current themes of interest in social, urban and medical anthropology.

The Urban Anthropology Symposium is moderated by Dr. Cătălin Constantin (University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters, the Cultural Studies and Ethnology Department) and will focus on the topic of Cultural peripheries and global spaces. The event is organized under the supervision of a Scientific Council, comprised of: Dr. Cristiana Glavce, Director of the “Francisc I. Rainrer” Institute of Anthropology, Prof. Mag. Dr. Thede Kahl, „Friedrich Schiller” Universitat Jena, Germania; Prof. Dr. Octavian Buda, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Dr Andrei Kozma, President of the Academic Anthropology Society and Dr. Adrian Majuru, Director of the Bucharest Municipality Museum.

The organization of the event is managed by a Comity comprised of: Angelica Iacob,  manager of the Public Relations, Marketing and Cultural Projects Department (Museum of the Municipality of Bucharest), Dr. Lelioara Zamani, manager of the History of Bucharest Department (Museum of the Municipality of Bucharest), Dr. Dan Pîrvulescu, Manager of the History Department (Museum of the Municipality of Bucharest)  and Lect. Univ. Dr. Cătălin D. Constantin, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters, The Cultural Studies and Ethnology Department.

Organized by:

  • The Bucharest Municipality Museum

  • “Friedrich Schiller” Universität Jena, Germany

  • The „Francisc I. Rainer” Institute of the Romanian Academy

  • Le Centre d’histoire orale et récits numérisés, Montréal

  • L’Institut National de la recherche scientifique, Centre – Urbanisation Culture Société, Québec

  • The Association for Urban Anthropology, Romania

  • The Academic Society of Anthropology, Romania

Schedule (Grand Hotel Continental, Calea Victoriei nr. 56, Bucharest):

  • 9.00: Registration
  • 10.00: Researcher, topic, participant – linguistic minorities in dialogue: Maya, Sephardic Jews, Kalmyk and Băieși, Ioana NECHITI, University of Vienna, Institute for Romance Studies
  • 10.30: The myth of the “encounter”: power dynamics and inequities in the stories told by the Innu of Nutashkuan, Aude MALTAIS-LANDRY, Concordia University Montreal, Centre for Oral History and Digital Storytelling
  • 11.00: Indigenous social innovation: mobilizing knowledge, Ioana RADU, The scientific research institute – Urbanisation, Culture Society Centre, DIALOGUE Network: The network of research and knowledge on autochthonous peoples, Montreal
  • 11.30: Aboriginal and Diasporic: An Impossible Predisposition? When Urban Aboriginal Institutions discourses enlighten theoretical debates, Ioana COMAT, The scientific research institute – Urbanisation, Culture Society Centre, DIALOGUE Network: The network of research and knowledge on autochthonous peoples, Montreal
  • 12.00: Reduced waiting times for elective surgery, Alexandru POPP, University of Saskatchewan, Mechanical Engineering and Medical Imaging Departments
  • 12.30: Live and let live! Alternative spaces in Ceauşescu’s Romania, Ruxandra Iuliana PETRINCA, McGill University Montreal, History Department
  • 13.00: Coffee break
  • 13.30: The Zoroastrian houses of Yazd, Iran, Drd. Hakim nia MOSTAFA, „Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism
  • 14.00: Geographical characteristics of Kandovan village and their impact upon the lifestyle of its inhabitants, Drd. Bahareh BATHAEI, “Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism
  • 14.30: Bucharest framed within its integrated urban systems ~ on identity and prestige, center and periphery, local and global, Conf. Dr. Arh. Victoria Marinela BERZA, The Faculty of Architecture – “Spiru Haret” University
  • 15.00: “They come to leave empty-handed”: Birth control in contemporary Romania, Dr. Lorena ANTON, Faculty of Letters – University of Bucharest
  • 15.30: The destitute from Cluj Asylums during the second half of the 17th century, Prof. Univ. Dr. Șarolta SOLCAN, Faculty of History – University of Bucharest
  • 16.00: The role of theatre in defining social identities: A study on the „Sucre, venin et fleurs d’oranger” play, in the context of the Moroccan community in Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, Brussels, Horia Ioan IOVA, the Bucharest Municipality Museum

Presentations:

Researcher, topic, participant – linguistic minorities in dialogue: Maya, Sephardic Jews, Kalmyk and Băieși - Ioana NECHITI

As part of the empirical research, we became aware of how our own identities shape what we notice as researchers and also what we don’t, as well as how they change people’s attitudes towards us (De Costa 2015: 105). Since the 60s, there has been an ongoing debate about the researcher’s approach and participant’s observation in social sciences where the notion of what participant observation means, has been problematized. Tedlock (1991) draws the attention on a transformational shift from a detached “participant observation” to a more reflexive observation of participation, which Davies (2008) considers to be a “turning back to oneself” or a “process of self-reference”. Empirical studies require, as Paul (1953: 441) pointed out, “emotional involvement” which, depending on the aim of research, imposes a well-planned graduation of the researcher’s involvement because our involvement may change the object of study (Labov 1972) as much as a range of research practices can affect the co-production of data.

This presentation will focus on the relationship of field linguists with both the academic community and the speech community from a contrastive point of view. Special attention will be paid to the researcher-participant dynamic with observations on the researcher’s active/passive, close/remote involvement respectively and to the possible consequences on the community’s linguistic behavior. Furthermore, it will explore methods of data collection from different types of speakers with different empirical goals. It will contrast empirical research experiences from Guatemala (Maya), Turkey (Sephardim), Kalmykia (Kalmyk) Hungary and Greece (Boyash) (synchronic) and complement it with individual examples of diachronic empirical data.

Of main concern is the observation of the diversity of actors and speakers involved in the process of revitalization of endangered languages and varieties in different parts of the world and the challenges that arise for the researcher when carrying out contrastive research. To this purpose, the following questions will be addressed: (1) which working parameters need to be established with a diversity of speakers, what working typology needs to be drafted for each of these language groups different from a geographic, cultural, linguistic religious etc. point of view?; (2) how to balance demands from the academic world with demands and needs for revitalization on the part of the community?

The presentation will be empirically supported by qualitative research data that I collected between 2010 and 2016 and complemented by quantitative interview data.

Ioana NECHITI,

University of Vienna,

Institute for Romance Studies

The myth of the “encounter”: Power dynamics and inequities in the stories told by the Innu of Nutashkuan - Aude MALTAIS-LANDRY

The question of the “encounter” is crucial to the history of relations between Europeans and Indigenous peoples in Quebec and in Canada. Often referred to as a so-called “nation-to-nation” relationship, the encounter is often placed at the core of a reassuring national narrative that undermines the fact that a real “interculturalism” never occurred between Europeans and Indigenous peoples on North American soil. The creation of the Indian Act at the end of the 19th century crystallized the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their rights and lands, through the attribution, amongst others, of small “Indian reserves” where they lived as second-class citizens, isolated from the Settlers’ towns and cities.

During the course of my research project, I wanted to explore the creation of those “Indian reserves” through an oral history project with the Innu community of Nutashkuan, an Indigenous people of Quebec who settled on their reserve in the 1950s. Interviews were conducted with members of the community, who referred to various encounters in their recent history. One of the stories related a meeting between the Band chief and an Indian Affairs representative, in the course of which a site for the future reserve was chosen, effectively dispossessing the community from its territory without their full understanding and consent. Other stories told of encounters between the Innu and the neighboring villagers of Natashquan in specific sites such as the general store or the church, and spoke to a latent racism that is often denied, today, by some villagers.

If it is generally admitted that the relations between both communities were often marked by the seal of mutual aid, the stories that participants told me, which are grounded in specific places of the land and village, evoke mostly a recurrent tension between the two groups. By complicating the narrative of the “encounter”, the stories told by the Innu of Nutashkuan speak more largely to the importance of addressing the inequity of past and present relationships, before engaging on the path of a true reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Quebec and Canada.

Aude MALTAIS-LANDRY,

Concordia University Montreal,

Centre for Oral History and Digital Storytelling

Indigenous social innovation: mobilizing knowledge - Ioana RADU

The presentation will focus on the results of an oral history project in the Cree Nation of Chisasibi (Eeyou Istchee, Quebec, Canada) that explored the links between autonomy and wellness in Indigenous contexts.  Together with decolonizing theories and critical studies, oral history theory and practice formed the basis of developing the community-based research partnership that concretely applied concepts of sharing authority and intersubjective dialog in defining an Indigenist research paradigm.

I will present the research-creation aspect of the project that includes a website, www.chisasibi-healing.ca, and a short documentary (35min) to show how academic knowledge can be mobilized to support community-based priorities as well as addressing social justice and reconciliation in Canada. In the first instance, by putting individual interviewees in a conversation, it aims to uncover potentially difficult aspects of healing and provide a multivocal reflection on local autonomy and decolonization. In the second instance, by presenting a multidisciplinary theoretical discussion of main research themes, the website aims to increase non-Indigenous peoples’ awareness of decolonization and promote Indigenous social innovation.

Ioana RADU,

Institut de Recherche Scientifique – Centre Urbanisation Culture Société,

Réseau DIALOG: Le réseau de recherche et de connaisances relatives aux peuples autochtones, Montreal

Aboriginal and Diasporic: An Impossible Predisposition? When Urban Aboriginal Institutions discourses enlighten theoretical debates - Ioana COMAT

With the application of the Indian Act (a law enacted in Canada in 1876 that controls Aboriginal citizenship and public administration), the colonial relationship between Aboriginal Peoples and the federal government led to the sacralisation of the reserve as Indian natural milieu. Based on the statement that Aboriginality is directly associated with rurality, the urban presence consequently implies a rural migration phenomenon and a necessary cultural dissolution in the host society. However, nowadays the city plays a major role as a hub for many First Nations, which would otherwise remain apart. As an important dimension of Aboriginal modernity, the rise of an urban society not only means occupying a « new » place, but also remapping Aboriginal contemporary territories by imposing a more reticular organization including connections between cities and reserves.

In this context, the idea of Diaspora is used by the network of Native Friendship Centre in Quebec (Canada) to rethink their place in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal civil society. Although this rhetorical use lies on the concrete spatiality of their people, it raises some theoretical and ontological problems that may nourish the diaspora field of study. As James Clifford points out: what is the legitimacy of this analogy when it is proclaimed by those who seem to precisely match the archetype of the local population, those who were “there before everyone else”? This presentation will discuss the issues raised by this geographical parallel in the context of the circularity of social knowledge and globalization as featured in late modernity.

Ioana COMAT,

Institut de Recherche Scientifique – Centre Urbanisation Culture Société,

Réseau DIALOG:

Le réseau de recherche et de connaisances relatives aux peuples autochtones, Montreal

Reduced waiting times for elective surgery - Alexandru POPP

Currently, the positioning of patients on elective surgical procedures wait lists is carried out through a decentralized approach involves a complex set of interactions between hospital capacities and patient demands in Quebec.

The primary goal of the research is to determine if a centralized vs. the present decentralized organizational system is beneficial for the patients, in such a manner that the priority on the waiting lists of patients is updated to reflect the amount of time they have waited. The current study combines quantitative computer simulations and qualitative interviews that help in the understanding and interpretation of the simulations’ results. The qualitative and quantitative results are triangulated in order to provide better analysis of the results.

The qualitative portion of this examination, based on different literature reviews as well as on 12 interviews performed with the hospital’s staff, aims at understanding the environment and what pressures the hospital staff face in their procedures to create the elective surgeries schedule. The results show that different surgical units within the same hospital have different methods to plan the surgical schedule.

The quantitative analysis is based on simulating a centralized planning method of elective surgeries planning for five different surgical units in order to provide different perspectives vis-à-vis the current decentralized planning method. The difference between the approaches is provided in order to obtain the best method that minimizes elective surgery waiting time, taking in consideration certain factors.

The results of the simulations show that centralization is beneficial for certain surgical units and for specific indicators, where decentralization is beneficial for other units and/or indicators. However, there is no definitive overall conclusion that centralization is better than decentralization or vice-versa.

Alexandru POPP

University of Saskatchewan,

Mechanical Engineering and Medical Imaging Departments

Live and let live! Alternative spaces in Ceauşescu’s Romania - Ruxandra Iuliana PETRINCA

During the socialist era, the border villages of 2 Mai and Veche, two small communities located on the Romanian shores of the Black Sea, became renowned oases of individual freedom. Far from the prying eyes of what was then an authoritarian socialist state, Romanian intellectuals, students, professionals,  and even Party’s luminaries chose these sites as an escape from the burdens and limitations of city life.  Some stayed in tents on the beach, others rented rooms from peasants in the tiny villages. They dozed, swam, or sun-bathed naked, did yoga, performed sketches, folk and rock and roll songs, updated their collection of jokes, exchanged smuggled books, wrote, and discussed philosophy or their latest manuscripts on the sandy beach, sitting under reed umbrellas. Resistance and collaboration were embodied locally; categories of otherwise mutually exclusive types of behaviour overlapped, and social and gender norms dispersed as even famous members of the RCP departed from party prescriptions. The study of Vama Veche and 2 Mai as sites of behaviour tolerated but not fully controlled by the communist party suggests that individuals interacted with each other and the state authorities in ways different from their interactions in other spaces or localities. To paraphrase historian L.P. Hartley’s well know remark that “the past is a foreign country,” one could say that dissidence was another locality for these vacationers.

The purpose of this study is to unearth stories of alternative cultural activities under communism and explore the spatial dimension of dissent. Why did Romanian intellectuals from all economic, political and geographical backgrounds choose 2 Mai and Vama Veche as vacation places? What do they mean by the sense of freedom they all claimed to have experienced, and how does it relate to the authoritarian state presence, socialist morality and everyday life? How did gender, class and ethnicity affect the interactions between local inhabitants, tourists and police agents? Is the personal political, and if so, in what way?

Ruxandra Iuliana PETRINCA,

McGill University Montreal, History Department

The Zoroastrian houses of Yazd, Iran - Drd. Hakim nia MOSTAFA

Iranian traditional architecture is one of the world’s architectures par excellence. Iranian architecture has developed over millennia in response to its religion. Many traditional and vernacular buildings in Iran show that the architects had been so clever in harmonizing the Iranian religion and architecture in the past. The architects know how to adapt architecture to Iran’s conditions. This article will explain the impacts of Iranian religions (Zoroastrian and Islam) on its architecture, and the major focus of the paper is to introduce how Iranian architecture has been influenced by the religion. It will analyze the Iranian architecture in the past and will show how the Iranian architecture was in harmony with Iranian religion, as well as its ideology. This article shows the difference between Zoroastrian house and their neighbors in Yazd, Iran.

Drd. Hakim nia MOSTAFA,

„Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism

Geographical characteristics of Kandovan village and their impact upon the lifestyle of its inhabitants - Drd. Bahareh BATHAEI

Kandovan is a village in Sahand Rural District, in the Central District of Osku County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. This village exemplifies manmade cliff dwellings which are still inhabited. The troglodyte homes, excavated inside volcanic rocks and tuffs similar to dwellings in the Turkish region of Cappadocia, are locally called “Karaan”. Karaans were cut into the Lahars (volcanic mudflow or debris flow) of Mount Sahand. The cone form of the houses is the result of lahar flow consisting of porous round and angular pumice together with other volcanic particles that were positioned in a grey acidic matrix. After the eruption of Sahand these materials were naturally moved and formed the rocks of Kandovan. Around the village the thickness of this formation exceeds 100 m and with time due to water erosion the cone shaped cliffs were formed. At the 2006 census, the village population was 601, in 168 families.

In this village, houses are not built on a mountain, but within a mountain. Another interesting aspect is the fact that the rock acts as an energy efficient material, keeping the house cool during summer and warm during winter. This is why most of the inhabitants here do not use heaters or air conditioning systems.

The intriguing architecture of this village seems to defy all rules and travelers are usually fascinated by its incredible slopes and irreverent paths. Recently a hotel was built, inspired by and connected to the “style” of the village. The “Rocky Hotel” features beautiful cave interiors with very comfortable living spaces. What we found interesting is that it takes ten months for four people to dig a room.

In this research, human lifestyle factors and the physical environment as well as their relationships with each other, will be studied in socio-economic backgrounds. Generally, influence of the shape of human life in relation to the geography of the area, will be investigated.

Drd. Bahareh BATHAEI,

“Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism

Bucharest framed within its integrated urban systems ~ on identity and prestige, center and periphery, local and global - Conf. Dr. Arh. Victoria Marinela BERZA

The article presents common issues for cities nowadays and the way in which levels of attractiveness and quality of life are influenced by malfunctions which exist in any field of fundamental guiding forces of urban development. Urban and unincorporated territories are ranked – for integration [global] some territories have a local short-term importance, others have a strategic importance; their hierarchical position is determined by the characteristics of urban syntax, the characteristics of subsystems components, anthropogenic and natural; the level of global integration is determined by the quality of connectivity and accessibility levels on a micro-scale, meso-scale and macro-scale. Bucharest has a triple role within the urban systems it belongs to – the role of human settlement, that of European metropolis and that of a Capital city of Europe. Different generations of people have different needs and different value systems; today’s young people live in cities structured by older generations and seek to create a living environment compatible with their needs; in turn, the young generations will age and see life in a different way than their previous views, and different from the new young generations. The coagulation of compatible solutions, for the issues of current and future generations, is only possible through flexibility and a permanent adaptation, through the continuous harmonizing of value systems. The principle of sustainability should guide the path of urban development – and out of the resources involved, the resources which confer identity to a place, such as the cultural and prestige resources, should play a key role in the determining of a territory’s level of attractiveness. This paper provides a general framework for the understanding of interdependencies between urban territories’ components, and for the acknowledgement of directions for action and intervention meant to ameliorate or remove dysfunctions within the action plans administrative entities exercise their authority in.

Conf. Dr. Arh. Victoria Marinela BERZA,

The Faculty of Architecture – “Spiru Haret” University

“They come to leave empty-handed”: Birth control in contemporary Romania - Dr. Lorena ANTON

Reproduction control (1966-1989) in Ceușescu’s Romania is considered to have been one of the most repressive political demographies in twentieth century Europe. Immediately after the fall of the communist regime, the new Romanian government legalized abortion on request. In the last decade, Romania’s abortion rate is still among the highest in the European Union (according to the National Institute of Statistics, 21.3 for 1000 women in 2009, versus 44.6 in 1999 and 177.6 in 1990) and maternal mortality due to unsafe, illegal abortion is still reported.

Stating from a long-term ethnography on reproduction-control in post-communist Romania, in Bucharest and Prahova County (2013-2017), this paper addresses the ways the pronatalist past, as well as the recent economic crisis, is negatively influencing reproductive health services and their access in contemporary Romania. Is ‘femeia-mamă’s health’ still a central point on the State’s agenda, or has it become peripheral? How was the ‘abortion culture’ rephrased after the 1990s, and how was it reframed with the help of official discourses and public policies? What are the limits of an urban anthropology of reproduction in nowadays Romania/Europe?

Dr. Lorena ANTON,

Faculty of Letters – University of Bucharest

The destitute from Cluj Asylums during the second half of the 17th century - Prof. Univ. Dr. Șarolta SOLCAN

In Transylvania asylums existed ever since the second half of the 14th century. They were founded near cities and benefited from the support of authorities as well as from the donation of several people. There were at times even two or three asylums in the surrounding areas of cities, and these institutions were meant to aid the destitute, the sick, and widows. In this present work I aim to reconstruct the life led by those who found shelter in two Cluj asylums – Saint Elisabeta and the Holy Spirit – during the first half of the 17th century. The main sources I used are the account registers for these two asylums, recently published by T. M. Marton, A. Flora and A. Mihaly.

These sources allow us to get better acquainted with the role of asylum in city life, as well as in the lives of those who took shelter between these institutions’ walls.

Prof. Univ. Dr. Șarolta SOLCAN,

Faculty of History – University of Bucharest

 

The role of theatre in defining social identities: A study on the „Sucre, venin et fleurs d’oranger” play, in the context of the Moroccan community in Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, Brussels - Horia Ioan IOVA

This study was developed as a Master Paper for the Centre of Excellence in the Study of Images, of the University of Bucharest and consists of an analysis of the defining elements of the Moroccan community in the Brussels commune of Molenbeek Saint Jean, from the perspective of the cultural performances in which its members take part. Even before having been labeled as the „European capital of terrorism” following the recent attacks in Paris and Brussels, the neighborhood, an old industrial area of the city, was already confronted with serious social problems, caused by poverty, unemployment and its character as a Muslim cultural enclave.

The 21st century comes up, for the globalizing European society,with a postcolonial and post nationalistic reality, with new forms of relationships between identity and alterity. A new subject for anthropology emerges: the immigrant, a person living in a society whose defining elements are very different to his own cultural experience.

In a study on cultural identities in postmodern context, Richard Schechner, performance studies researcher, stated: „Cultures are most fully expressed in and made conscious of themselves in their ritual and theatrical performance.[…] We will know one another better by entering one another’s performances and learning their grammars and vocabularies.”[1],  herby suggesting the role of performance studies as an instrument for.

This study defines the theatrical show as a sample for the structural and functional elements of a given culture, according to the theories of Erike Fischer Lichte[2]. In her view, cultural performances – ceremonies, concerts, shows etc. – are but re-enactments of the daily life, and differ from it only by power of the dramatization (staging) process, to which they are subject.  Cultural performances contain, thus, valuable information on the structure of a community.

Theatre directors of the 20th century, such as Augusto Boal or Joan Littlewood, have laid the basis of a theatre of minorities, meant to improve social awareness and self-awareness   through artistic experiences of theatrical improvisation and stage play.  Their work was focused on culturally vulnerable groups, such as factory workers or vagrant children.

The „Sucre, venin et fleurs d’oranger” show is a result of three year-long theatre – workshop process, which involved eight Moroccan women, members of the Molenbeek commune.  The show tells the story of four generations of immigrants and tackles current issues of the Moroccan communities living in Belgium: the relations between the minority and the broader society, the relations between men and women and the status of the Maghreb Muslims in comparison to the status of the Gulf Muslims.

The applied research of the paper is built around the social role of the immigrants in the commune of Molenbeek, with a focus of the way in which they transpose their daily role into a stage role, taking into consideration the reactions of the public and their perception on these forms of cultural performances, in the context of a periphery neighborhood.

Horia Ioan IOVA,

The Bucharest Municipality Museum

[1]Richard Schechner, Performance studies in/for the 21st century”,  Anthropology and Humanism,  Vol 26. No 2., Department for Performance Studies, New York University, New York, pp 158-166, p. 163

[2] Erika Fisher-Lichte, , The Routledge Introduction to Theatre and Performance Studies, Routledge, digital version, 2014,  p.164

 

Urban Anthropology Symposium

1st Edition – 15th of July 2015, Bucharest

Muzeul Municipiului Bucureşti, Centre for Medical Humanities – Oxford Brookes University, Institutul de Antropologie „Francisc I. Rainer” al Academiei Române, Asociația pentru Antropologie Urbană, Societatea Academică de Antropologie şi Facultatea de Urbanism a Universităţii de Arhitectură şi Urbanism „Ion Mincu” a organizat prima ediţie a Simpozionului de Antropologie urbană, desfăşurat la Bucureşti în ziua de miercuri, 15 iulie 2015. Prin acest simpozion anual realizat în colaborare cu alte instituţii, Muzeul Municipiului Bucureşti îşi propune să pună la dispoziţia specialiştilor o platformă de prezentare a ultimelor cercetări din domeniu, să faciliteze comunicarea antropologilor la nivel naţional şi internaţional şi să problematizeze teme de actualitate referitoare la antropologia urbană, socială şi medicală. Simpozionul de Antropologie urbană face parte dintr-o serie de evenimente similare, pe diferite domenii, iniţiate de Muzeul Municipiului Bucureşti.

Amintim Conferinţa Imagine şi identitate vizuală în marketingul muzeal, organizată de Muzeul Municipiului Bucureşti şi Facultatea de Administraţie şi Afaceri, Universitatea Bucureşti în luna decembrie 2014, precum şi Simpozionul de arheologie, aflat la prima ediţie, desfăşurat în ziua de 26 iunie 2015 în colaborare cu Muzeul Civilizaţiei Gumelniţa Olteniţa, Muzeul Regional de Istorie Ruse şi Muzeul de Istorie Turtucaia. Simpozionul de Antropologie urbană este realizat sub atenta coordonare a unui Consiliu Știinţific alcătuit din: Dr. Cristiana Glavce, Director, Institutul de Antropologie „Francisc I. Rainer”, Academia Română, Dr. Marius Turda, Director, Centre for Medical Humanities, Oxford Brookes University, Dr. Andrei Kozma, Preşedinte, Societatea Academică de Antropologie şi Dr. Adrian Majuru, Director, Muzeul Municipiului Bucureşti.

Presentations:

Investigarea a unor artefacte de piei umane tatuate utilizând metode analitice nedistructive - Maria-Mihaela MANEA, Cristina IONESCU, Liviu-Stefan CRACIUN

Conservarea şi protejarea patrimoniului cultural reprezintă astăzi una dintre preocupările majore ale comunităţii europene, cercetarea ştiinţifică prin metode avansate moderne de analiză fiind indispensabilă pentru cunoasterea şi valorificarea patrimoniului cultural naţional şi universal. Această cunoaştere este necesară pentru studii de provenienţa şi autentificare, pentru păstrarea, protejarea şi transmiterea patrimoniului cultural din generaţie în generaţie prin adoptarea unor tratamente de restaurare şi conservare sigure şi eficiente.

În lucrarea de faţă s-a urmărit investigarea unor mostre de piele umană tatuată de la subiecţi decedaţi la începutul secolului XX şi a unor mostre de piele de animal în scopul stabilirii condiţiilor optime de conservare. Investigarea probelor s-a realizat prin metode analitice nedistructive: spectroscopia de infrarosu (FTIR) si Raman (FT-Raman) si  microscopia de forţă atomică (AFM). Prin metodele de spectroscopie de vibraţie s-a caracterizat structura moleculara a pielii şi s-au identificat pigmentii utilizati în realizarea tatuajelor, iar prin microscopie de forţă atomică s-a investigat suprafeţa pielii la nivel nanometric si s-a urmărit obţinerea topografiei şi a rugozităţii suprafețelor.

Eugenism si deficientele istoriografiei romane actuale - Dr.Marius TURDA

Dupa 25 de ani de la caderea comunismului istoriografia romaneasca a facut progrese putine in ceea ce priveste reflexia critica asupre trecutului. La momentul actual oferta istoricilor romani oscileaza intre eseul istoric, superficial si usor provocativ (L. Boia) si meta-naratiunea nationalista (I. Scurtu). Desi noile generatii de istorici, atat in Romania cat si in strainatate, au incercat sa ofere interpretari critice, bazate pe o buna cunoastere a surselor si la zi cu metodologia si dezbaterile istoriografice ale momentului, foarte putini au reusit sa captiveze publicul larg din Romania. Folosind istoria putin cunoscuta a eugenismului romanesc doresc sa discut cateva din temele majore ale istoriei Romaniei din perioada 1918-1944, cum ar fi modernizarea si Romanizarea.

Dr. Marius Turda

mturda@brookes.ac.uk

Semana Santa la Valladolid - Dr.Cătălin D. Constantin

In Spain, important processions take place during the Holy Week: the statuary groups representing scenes from the life of Jesus are taken out of churches and monasteries and slowly worn on city streets, accompanied by huge crowds of locals. Two regions stand out in this process. Andalusia in the south. Castilla y Leon, in north-central Spain. If cities of Andalusia attract plenty of tourists during this period, the processions of Castilla y León are primarily manifestations of locals and foreign visitors are present only incidentally. Less colorful and noisy than those in Andalusia, Castilla y Leon processions are more interesting for an anthropologist eye.

The author observed directly, during three weeks in 2010, the preparations and then the processions in Valladolid. 2010 was a symbolic year, it was the celebration of 200 years since the very first procession on Good Friday took place in a very particular context: the city was for the first and the only time in its history under foreign occupation. Napoleon had set his camp there and his troops hesitated upon putting a ban on processions or grouping them all in one day, to easily control the crowds. Although born in a very restrictive context, the procession on Good Friday, climax and spectacular summary of the processions of Semana Santa in Valladolid, resisted and gained tradition.

The article chiefly analyzes the relationship between  the procession route and the symbolic  space of the city.

Anthropological aspects of health equity of children in Romania - Dr.Andrei Kozma, Dr.Ecaterina Stativa

Present work explores how socio-economic conditions of the environment, in which children live, differ regarding the right to normal health care and its effect on the duration and quality of life..

In the last 25 years, studies on nutritional status of women and children in Romania showed a progressive polarization of life chances and healthness, according to the environmental standard conditions of living. These inequalities were generated by differential influence on the living environment, respectively an unequal distribution of resources, between urban and rural areas. Consequently we have, an increasing number of socially disadvantaged people who have less access to preventive, curative or for recovery care.

This paper treats the issues related to life expectancy (longevity), the quality of life in terms of food from pre and postnatal period – both in terms of child and mother – differentiated by urban/ rural by taking into analysis their effects on the future development of the child, such as anemia.

It is also analyzed the evolution of the health system, during 1990-2013, with its effects on equality of access to health care today – for mother and child.

The conclusion reached by the authors, suggests that if urgent action is not taken – in the sense of shrinkage of artificial differences created by human behaviors – concerning the environment – by coherently interconnected health policies with other sectors such as education; in time, these phenomena will increase the burden of social spiral.

Equalization chances to health and education through disappearance and / or shrinking of the disparities between the urban and rural environement, beginning from the young ages, is one of the most important preconditions for the welfare and prosperity of populations.

Podoabele în tablouri votive din București - Drd. Ioana Gabriela Duicu

Bucureştiul domnesc se constituie în această lucrare într-un subiect unic al unei atente observaţii a podoabelor din câteva tablouri votive ecleziastice, cu rolul de a ilustra spiritul medieval şi premodern, fără de care „modernitatea noastră între Europa şi Orient … ar fi probabil mai greu de imaginat”[1].

Prezenţa podoabelor în portretele acestor tablouri este una frecventă, ea constituind modalitatea prin care comanditarului îi erau etalate atributele rangului pe care-l deţinea sau îi marca identitatea etnică.

Dacă veşmântul din tablourile votive ale secolului al XVIII-lea este unul oarecum clasic, secolul al XIX-lea aduce un suflu nou, o diversificare atât a croiului, al elementelor componente, cât mai ales în repertoriul podoabelor. Intervenţia pictorilor face de fapt această deosebire majoră deoarece, chiar dacă respectă canoanele şi se ajută de izvoade, la fel ca şi zugravii ce păstrau tradiţia şcolii bizantine, tablourile votive capătă „libertatea” de exprimare a spiritului artistic şi astfel au putut să-şi etaleze întreaga pricepere, subliniată şi prin redările miniaturale ale detaliilor podoabelor.

Identificarea diversităţii, rolului şi calităţilor podoabelor, aşa cum vom încerca să le creionăm, reprezintă paşii care trebuie urmaţi în identificarea lor, predilecte vremurilor şi modelor dintr-un anumit moment al istoriei.

[1] Răzvan Theodorescu, Genezele unei spiritualităţi, în Grădina valahă, Bucureşti, 1999, format digital.

Această lucrare a fost realizată în cadrul proiectului “Cultura română şi modele culturale europene: cercetare, sincronizare, durabilitate”, cofinanţat de Uniunea Europeană şi Guvernul României din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013, contractul de finanţare nr. POSDRU/159/1.5/S/136077

Drd. Ioana Gabriela Duicu

ioanaduicu@yahoo.com

Muzeul Naţional al Satului „Dimitrie Gusti”

Mono-industrial zones in Sud-Muntenia region - Amalia Balescu

This study begins by using the term mono-industrial town or monotown. Localities of this type are defined as those dominated by a single industry, associated with the communist planned economy period, when many of them depended on a single economic agent.

After 1989, following contraction of industrial activity or even closures, these villages were affected in socially and economically in particular, some of them being declared disadvantaged areas.

This paper refers to both local and regional development, and more specifically to small monotowns or rural localities with a specialized mono-economy based on industry. In addition it explores the avenues for local development within a regional context. The study aims to analyze the evolution of socio-economic development of these mono-industrial localities, the current degree of development, and the present economic role they have, in order to characterize types of mono-industrial areas and to propose a scenario to help revitalize disadvantaged areas.

Amalia Balescu

amaliabalescu04@gmail.com

Scoala doctorala, Universitatea de Arhitectura si Urbanism „Ion Mincu”- Bucuresti

Transformări ale peisajului urban în perioada campaniilor electorale. Afișul – instrument de conștientizare socială sau agent de poluare estetică - Gabriel Stoiciu

Afișele, creații grafice multiplicate și difuzate în spațiul public cu scopul de a promova informații de larg interes sau având caracter comercial reprezintă o bogată sursă de cunoaștere atât a culturii cât și a epocii din care provin. Apariția mass-media și a multimedia pare să determine o diminuare a impactului pe care îl au afișele clasice realizate pe suport grafic. Cu toate acestea, atât datorită prețului, dar și unor importanți factori culturali, nu este încă de imaginat o campanie publicitară (electorală îndeosebi) fără difuzarea de afișe. Principalele componente ale afișului, imaginea statică și textul cu impact au, datorită simplității stimulului, o persistență sporită în reprezentările culturale individuale și colective.

A aduce în discuție afișul ca produs reprezentativ, înzestrat cu suficiente elemente pentru ne putea oferi un cadru interpretativ referitor la cultura de proveniența, nu reprezintă un demers nou, dar este cu siguranța unul puțin explorat, în special din perspectivă comparată. Campaniile electorale sunt marcate de adevărate întreceri în plan cantitativ în ceea ce privește afișajul. Dar aduc oare acestea și o îmbunătățire în plan calitativ în ceea ce privește peisajul urban?

Gabriel Stoiciu

gabriel.stoiciu@gmail.com

Institutul de Antropologie “Francisc Rainer” – Academia Romana

Între emblematic şi expresiv: grădina peisageră engleză ca instituţie culturală a secolului al XVIII-lea - Lect. dr. Dragoş Ivana,

Comunicarea de faţă propune o reinterpretare a grădinii peisagere engleze ca instituţie culturală sau, cu alte cuvinte, ca topos urban neoclasic. Analiza se concentrează pe o componentă estetică – teoria umanismului civic adoptată de Joshua Reynolds, care încadrează grădina peisageră în domeniul artei liberale – şi pe dimensiunea socio-politică – plasarea cetăţeanului în sfera republicii (res publica), pentru a evidenţia contribuţia pe care grădina engleză o aduce la fondarea Republicii Gustului înţeles ca reprezentare emblematicăşi expresivă a spiritului britanic în secolul al XVIII-lea.

Lect. dr. Dragoş Ivana,

dragosivana@yahoo.com

Facultatea de Limbi şi Literaturi Străine, Universitatea Bucureşti

Cultura nationala, individul colectiv si orasul - Razvan Paraianu

Ideea de îmbunătățire a corpului națiunii implică existența unei individualități colective și nu o asociere a unor indivizi liberi. Această individualitate colectivă, sugerată de Emil Durkheim, devine tot mai prezentă în scrierile oamenilor de știință la începutul secolului al XX-lea. Dacă este să luăm în considerare însă numai lucrările științifice de medicină și igienă socială sau cele de antropologie și sociologie vom scăpa din vedere modul cum a luat viața acest individ colectiv care în cursul câtorva decenii dobândește treptat individualitate, profil, destin, voință, personalitate, caracter, originalitate, energie, înțelepciune, &c. Or, toate aceste atribute ale persoanei umane au fost împrumutate individului colectiv prin mijloace literare. Literații au fost aceia care prin limbajul lor figurativ au reușit să insufle viața precum Frankenstein creaturii sale monstruoase. 
În intervenția mea voi vorbi despre acest proces de creație a individului colectiv în literatura și publicistica începutului de secol XX dar și despre destinul ei în perioada comunistă, perioada în care națiunea și cultura socialistă au preluat și modificat acest individ colectiv în folosul noii orânduiri. Astăzi, după un sfert de secol de la prăbușirea regimului comunist, constatăm cu tristețe că nu a apărut încă o veritabilă alternativă la această cultură, drept pentru care multe din fenomenele culturale rămân încă obscure. Cultura națională rămâne mai departe o imagine simbolică a unei societăți monolitice în care elemente anonime anistorice și cu precădere rurale formează un amalgam refractar valorilor umaniste.

Razvan Paraianu

razvan.paraianu@gmail.com

Universitatea Tg.Mures

Organizatori: Muzeul Municipiului Bucureşti, Centre for Medical Humanities – Oxford Brookes University, Institutul de Antropologie „Francisc I. Rainer” al Academiei Române, Asociația pentru Antropologie Urbană, Societatea Academică de Antropologie, Facultatea de Urbanism a Universităţii de Arhitectură şi Urbanism „Ion Mincu”

Sponsori: Grand Hotel Continental, Hanul Manuc

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